The study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
What is commonly known as the Aztek calendar has a name of its own:
Now occupying center stage at the National Museum of Archaeology and History in Chalpultepek Park in Mexico City; uncovered on December 17, 1790; sculpted in the year 13 AKATL, Reed, 1479; and containing millenniums of accumulated astronomical knowledge and wisdom spanning the continent stands the most enigmatic art/monument/icon in the world, the TONALMACHIOTL, universally known as the Aztek Calendar, the next logical step of the Maya Calendar; proven by modern scientific means to be the most precise calendar system invented by humankind.
Here we present only a brief introduction to the "Manner of Working" (as it was called by the oldest of our teachers) that we have been using to delve and understand the heart and mind of these extraordinary human beings who had reached their cosmic identity.
The written history of our ancestors and of their great territories, with little or a lot of their blood within us, has always had a pull or push on us, every one of us. Yet, mostly leaving everyone unable to answer: Who really were the Aztecs or where they came, the Olmek and Toltek were the same? The Maya came after who... and then Maya and Chichimeka Olmeka Tolteka, Azteka, Mixteka and Zatopek? A multitude of evidence shows traces of them and a variety of influences of our ancient people that inhabited this huge Western Hemisphere that indicate that there were many exchanges and encounters between all indigenous peoples to come to the conclusion that time is the common factor. So in common and together they dedicated themselves to learning to respect, take advantage of and win over time.
Now, let us present just a glimmer of the influence of our precious ancestors that we have access to, in hope that you make it yours because, in short, it is not an Aztek thing, nor a Mexican thing or Indian thing, it is the ANCIENT MEXIKA CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM: A Human Experience Towards Personal Transcendence, with Global Consequences.
That is our task.
Our most ancient ancestors became OLMEKATL [Ol(lin) = movement; Mekatl = rope] when they began measuring and recording the changes in nature and tying the movement of time in the cosmos.
They were followed by our ancestors TOLTEKATL, the master craftsmen that designed, built and created according to the measurement of their grandfathers. TOLTEK became synonymous for one who will not settle for second best, one who will give his/her best and all to whatever endeavor they are involved with to work to their peak of capacity.
Our ancestors from the MAYAB set the perimeter for us and were entrusted with leading us to the beginning of time and the end of the present cycle that will be manifested by various projected astronomical Phenomena on 2012, especially regarding the Return of Ketzalkoatl.
Finally, after millenniums the responsibility was passed onto our ancestors who reached the stage of AZTEKATL [Az = harmonious instruments, Tekat l= person of] they created that monumental talking stone, the TONALMACHIOTL that encompasses the secrets of the universe that allowed them to model their life in a perfect harmonious relationship of the rhythm of the human being in his mother's womb with those of nature and the earth at the Rhythm of the Cosmos.
Specifically, the TONALMACHIOTL measures the human gestation period of nine months, 260-273 days, called the TONALPOUALLI/TZOLKIN, in correlation with the period of the earth's translation around the Sun in a 365.25 day solar year. This period was recorded in 13 day cycles and when the child was born he or she was given the name and number of that particular 24 hour piece of time. The ancestors could identify the potential, qualities and capabilities that existed in that space of time, and this was the basis of his/her responsibility to everybody and everything that surrounded them. Mother and father were responsible for insuring their child grew up recognizing and knowing its potential and capacities and thus its responsibilities by maintaining the rhythm in which it was born.
This is not to be confused with a horoscope or superstition as it was not meant to measure luck, future nor destiny and it was not an obligation but a responsibility. Mother and father were given a cosmic profile that would aid and guide them in the raising of their child to be a positive contribution to the community. The readings continues to date!
Please be mindful that this is not an Aztek thing, nor a Mexican thing, and neither is it an Indian thing but rather, this is the
ANCIENT MEXIKA CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM:
"A Human Experience towards Personal Transcendence"
It is Mexika because it was finalized and disseminated from modern day Mexico City, back then Mexiko Tenochtitlan, the headquarters of the Confederation of the Eagle and The Condor. This is the culmination of a collective continental experiment that crossed thousands of miles and peoples over thousands of years resulting in a Cosmic Identity and Responsibility to everything and everybody that surrounds one. Neither is this based on the color of your skin, eyes, nor your hair, but rather on that moment you took your first breath of life...this calendar is for and about you.
These calendars are sized to a standard 24 x 36
and Correlated to the Gregorian Calendar
$25.00 plus $5.00 for shipping.
Click HERE to order YOUR Tonalamatl Poster
by Eugenie Samuel Reich
Soon after the Big Bang, there were tiny ripples: quantum fluctuations in the density of the seething ball of hot plasma. Billions of years later, those seeds have grown into galaxy clusters — sprawling groups of hundreds or thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity.
But there seems to be a mismatch. Results released last year suggest that as much as 40 percent of galaxy-cluster mass is missing when compared with the amount of clustering predicted by the ripples. The findings have led theorists to propose physics beyond the standard model of cosmology to make up the difference. But a reconciliation could be in the offing, using improved measurements of the cluster masses.
The mismatch was first detected by the European Space Agency’s Planck spacecraft, which measured the fluctuations imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang and compared them with clusters that it could see. “A lot of us are intrigued” by the discrepancy, says David Spergel, an astrophysicist at Princeton University in New Jersey, who studied the cosmic microwave background with Planck’s predecessor, NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. “There’s something missing in our understanding.”
Some theorists have played with the characteristics of neutrinos — ghostly, nearly massless subatomic particles — as a way of compensating. On 6 February, for example, physicist Wayne Hu of the University of Chicago in Illinois and his colleagues published a theory that the mismatch could be bridged if the three known types of neutrino were significantly heavier than thought, or if there were a fourth, as yet undiscovered species of neutrino. The extra neutrino mass would have had an effect on the growth of the primordial ripples, evening them out and resulting in fewer clusters being observed today.
Now two studies, one in preparation and one posted on the arXiv preprint server on 11 February, suggest that clusters actually have more mass than Planck estimated — and thus that there is little need for exotic physics. Both studies used gravitational lensing, a technique that weighs clusters by measuring how much their gravitational fields distort light that passes through them. “We think there’s no problem,” says Anja von der Linden, an astrophysicist at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University in California.
Von der Linden works on a project called Weighing the Giants, which used the Subaru telescope and the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope, both on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, to study 22 galaxy clusters also measured by Planck. It came up with an average cluster mass of 1015 solar masses, or about 1,000 times the mass of the Milky Way — an average that was 43 percent higher than Planck’s estimates. The other study, called the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH), used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure 25 clusters measured by Planck, and produced an estimate that was about 30 percent higher than Planck’s.
The differences seem to be attributable to the uncertain nature of Planck’s estimates, which rely on a process called the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (see ‘Weighing up galaxy clusters’). Planck detects photons from the cosmic microwave background. On their way to the satellite, some of these microwaves pass through galaxy clusters. There, they encounter energetic electrons associated with clouds of hot gas. When the photons collide with the electrons, they are boosted to higher energies.
The strength of that signal can be correlated with the mass of all the galaxies in the cluster, because a larger cluster will trap more hot gas. But it is not a precise relationship. “That’s the biggest source of uncertainty,” says James Bartlett, a cosmologist at the University of Paris Diderot who is part of the Planck collaboration. He says that Planck will release an updated analysis later this year that fine-tunes its mass calibration, and may bump up the cluster masses.
Many astrophysicists think that the remaining discrepancies will be resolved by data from other lensing surveys that are now starting up. The US$50-million Dark Energy Survey, an optical-survey telescope at Cerro Tololo in Chile, completed its first three months of observations on 9 February. It measured hundreds of clusters and its first science results are expected later this year. Next month, a $50-million Japanese instrument, Hyper Suprime-Cam, will be used to start a large lensing survey on the Subaru telescope.
Bradford Benson, an astrophysicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, says that even if turns out that no cluster mass was missing after all, it will still be important to trace the evolution of today’s clusters from the original cosmic ripples to see how the effects of dark energy, a mysterious repulsive force, may have changed with time. “Powerful data sets will be the next chapter in the story,” he says.
This story originally appeared in Nature News.